The long nineteenth century 1815-1918 News

The Freedom of the Swiss

The history of the Freedom of the Swiss by Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) was recently published, two hundred years after the original French publication in 1815, in a German version entitled Die Freiheit der Schweizer. Gibbon is considered the father of modern historiography and is still one of the most important English historians. His best-known work … Read more » “The Freedom of the Swiss”

Geneva’s Choice in 1815

On December 30, 1813, the entry of the Austrian general Count Ferdinand Bubna von Littiz (1768-1825) brought an end to fifteen years of French domination of Geneva. The city had welcomed the French revolutionary troops enthusiastically in 1798. After the fifteen years of French annexation, French-speaking Geneva stood at an important crossroads in its two … Read more » “Geneva’s Choice in 1815”

The founder of direct democracy

One hundred years ago, on 6 March 1866, Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler, one of the founders of modern Switzerland, died. He was born in Beromünster in 1780. He left his post in the Napoleonic administration of the Helvetic Republic at the age of nineteen to study in Jena. He was successful in ophthalmology in Göttingen. … Read more » “The founder of direct democracy”