The Great Constitution of 1848

The Constitution of 1848 marked the beginning of a rapid development of the new Swiss Confederation in almost all areas. 1815-1848 The confederation of sovereign cantons  in 1815 became a federal state of three political layers: the federal level, the cantons and the municipalities. The principle of sovereign cantons remained unchanged with one important difference: … Read more » “The Great Constitution of 1848”

The Landsgemeinde and Direct Democracy

For a good understanding of the emergence and functioning of direct democracy in Switzerland a (historical) knowledge of the Landsgemeinde is indispensable. This article is limited to a broad outline of the subject. It shows that the basis of Swiss direct democracy is centuries old. The political choice in the nineteenth century was the result … Read more » “The Landsgemeinde and Direct Democracy”

The Presidency

The main governmental provisions are contained in Articles 174-179 of the Federal Constitution. These describe the appointment and number of members of the government (seven), Their term of office (four years), the principles of collegiality and equality, the tasks and appointment of the Federal Chancellery,  and the tasks and appointment of the Head of State. … Read more » “The Presidency”