Bridge in Switzerland

Kulm Hotel, Bridgekamer, 1947. Archief: Kulm Hotel, St. Moritz.

The Netherlands and Switzerland were, until 1795 respectively, 1798, republics of seven sovereign provinces of the Netherlands and thirteen sovereign cantons of the Confederation (Eidgenossenschaft). Both were recognised as independent states by the Peace of Münster/Westphalia in 1648. Close diplomatic, military and commercial contacts existed between countries and their cantons/provinces. Swiss (Protestant) mercenaries in the … Read more » “Bridge in Switzerland”

A Country of Museums

Basel, Haus zur Mücke Foto/photo: TES.

The first museums originated in Renaissance Italy during the fifteenth century. Rome and Greece’s political and constitutional models were popular, and the (re)discovery of Greek and Roman authors increased the awareness of the ancient world. Many citizens started to collect items and show them off. Antique objects (coins, statues, everyday objects, inscriptions and other artefacts) were … Read more » “A Country of Museums”

Quadrilingual Switzerland and Identity

Fribourg/Freiburg, Le pont de Sarine, Röstigrabenbrücke über die Saane. Foto/Photo:TES

The Confederation of thirteen sovereign cantons (1513-1798) was a German-speaking alliance. Fribourg was the only bilingual (French and German) canton. Multilingual Switzerland was a creation of the French occupier in 1798. The hegemony of German disappeared. The Helvetic Republic (1798-1803) recognised the equality of the Italian, French and German languages. Laws and decrees were published … Read more » “Quadrilingual Switzerland and Identity”