The last Prince of Neuchâtel
Neuchâtel was a remarkable new canton of the new Swiss Confederation in 1815. The Prussian King William III was still the legitimate ruler of this canton. This history dates back to 1707 when Marie de Nemour of the French Orléans-Longueville family died without a legitimate heir. This family had ruled the former independent county of Neuchâtel since 1504. After her death, the three estates of Neuchâtel chose the Protestant King Frederick I as their new Prince. Neuchâtel had been Protestant since 1530 and Berlin was much further away than Paris.
Moreover, Berne wanted to curb the influence of the French king. Several palaces are a reminder of the Prussian period. The Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm III. exchanged Neuchâtel with Napoleon for Hanover in 1806. Due to the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the king got Neuchâtel back. He would not enjoy it for long.
The canton and in particular the industrial cities of La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Locle was a superpower in the watch industry. They rebelled against the royal patricians of Neuchâtel. After a failed revolt in 1831, the revolution succeeded in 1848 and the republic was proclaimed. The Prussian king protested and even threatened to intervene. However, he had to contend with uprisings and unrest in his kingdom. However, the king had two main pillars: the patriciate of Neuchâtel, which had always benefited from the Prussian military career and economic relations, and the valley of La Sagne in the Jura.
After a failed monarchist coup in 1856, military threats by the Prussian king and the mobilisation of troops by the Swiss Confederation, the king finally renounced his rights in 1857. By way of compromise, the king retained the title “Prince of Neuchâtel and Count of Valangin”. It marked the end of the last principality of Switzerland.