Canton Solothurn

Solothurn (Soleure) has a long history that goes back to the prehistory the Celts and the Romans. The Celtic name of the settlement was Salodurum (watergate), a name adopted by the Romans.

The town obtained the status of a free imperial city (freie Reichsstadt) of the Holy Roman Empire in 1281. The city acquired the territory of the present-day canton of Solothurn for two centuries (the last enlargements date from 1530). Solothurn became a full member of the Confederation in 1481 after a period of alliances.

The capricious borders of the canton indicate a complicated process of many centuries. The territory was disputed by (noble) families, (powerful) abbeys, other cities (cantons) and other contenders.

The many monuments and buildings show the city’s religious, military, political and commercial development.

Solothurn remained Catholic, as witnessed by the Jesuit church (1680-1689) and the seat (since 1828) of the diocese of Basel.

Basel adopted the Reformed faith in 1525-1529. The bishop first moved his seat to Porrentruy (Pruntrut) and, in 1828, to Solothurn.

One of the many unique historical buildings is the Zeitglockturm from 1545. The astronomical clock has three functions. The clock indicates the hours of the day and night, the sun and the moon and the location of these celestial bodies. The tower was built in 1152 by Duke Konrad of Zähringen (1090-1152) as part of the castle.

The defensive walls and the eleven bastions were demolished in the nineteenth century, except for the Riedholzturm and the Krummturm.

The many beautiful streets and well-maintained public and private buildings and monuments give a good impression of the grandeur and wealth of the city. The city was the location of the French embassy to the Confederation for more than two hundred and fifty years (1530-1792).

The lucrative commercial ties with France focused particularly on the mercenaries’ business. The French king was very impressed by the Swiss fighting spirit and power. This trade financed many splendid public and private buildings in the city.

The town is a true (baroque) jewel along the river Aare nowadays.