The long nineteenth century 1815-1918 News

Polish-Swiss Friendship

Karl Gottlieb Schweikart 1772-1855,Tadeusz Kosciuszko, c. 1802. Photo: Wikipedia. National Museum Warsaw.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko was born as son of a Polish aristocratic family in 1746, in a town now part of the Republic of Belarus. He took on a career as an army officer first in Warsaw (1765-1769) and afterwards in France (1769-1774), where he acquired his expertise as a military engineer in building military fortifications. He … Read more » “Polish-Swiss Friendship”

The Vienna Congress

Die Republik und Genf atmen auf Anfang 1814. Foto: TES.

The great powers (Prussia, Russia, France, Austria and the United Kingdom) wanted to restore the European balance and the old regimes in 1814 and 1815. After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 (disbanded by Napoleon) and the fall of Napoleon (1813), the continent should not be dominated by one power again. They … Read more » “The Vienna Congress”

The Swiss Federal Court

The Session Hall of the Federal Court. Photo:

The old Swiss Confederation or Eidgenossenschaft was a loose and complex agreement between cantons. The origins of the cooperation go back to the thirteenth century, but it was not until 1848 that the federal constitution formalized the relations between the cantons. There was no federal supreme jurisdictional authority until this time and when a dispute … Read more » “The Swiss Federal Court”