The Canton of Neuchâtel
2 March 2019
Bern, Zurich, and Freiburg were the dominant cantons in the sixteenth century.
Three other areas, however, deserve special attention, because of their unique history.
The sovereign Republic of Gersau was a small village on Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee) was an independent Republic from the fourteenth century until 1798.
Tarasp and Rhäzuns (canton Graubünden) belonged until 1803 and 1819 to the House of Habsburg.
The canton of Neuchâtel was formally a part of the Prussian kingdom until 1857.
The Celtic tribe of Helvetii inhabited the area of Neuchâtel before the arrival of the Romans. Pile dwelling villages were built on the shores of the lake (the museum in Hauterive (Laténium) is dedicated to this).
The Roman era began after 15 BC. The area was part of the (first) Kingdom of Burgundy (463-534). The era of monasteries, abbeys and bishops began in this period. The area was Frankish after 534, Merovingian and then the Carolingian. After the collapse and division of the Carolingian Empire (843), Neuchâtel belonged to the (second) Burgundian kingdom (888-1032).
The castle was built at this time, around 1 000. Neuchâtel means new castle (Novum Castellum in Latin, Neuenburg in German). It was a military and administrative centre of the king of Burgundy. Written sources of 1196 mention the Count of Neuchâtel for the first time, as the feudal lord of the German emperor. The Collègiale and the church were built in this period.
Neuchâtel was part of the diocese of Lausanne and the archdiocese of Besançon. The County of Neuchâtel would acquire more and more areas and new towns were founded. The area of the present-day canton Neuchâtel dates from this period.
The French (royal) family d’Orléans-Longueville inherited the County in 1504. This family died out in 1707 and the (Protestant) Prussian King of the Hohenzollern dynasty (Frederick William 1, 1688-1740) acquired the County by choice of the (Protestant) States General (Trois états) of .Neuchâtel. The choice was determined by religion (Neuchâtel was Protestant since 1530).
The French invasion of Napoleon (1798) led to a brief French intermezzo. The French Marshal Alexandre Berthier (1753-1815) became Prince of Neuchâtel in 1806. The Prussian king returned in 1814, but Neuchâtel became a canton and member of the Eidgenossenschaft in 1815.
This situation ended in 1857 when the Prussian King Frederick William IV (1795-1861) renounced his rights. The last monarchy disappeared from Swiss soil. (Source: Ouvrage collectif, Histoire du Pays de Neuchâtel, Tomes 1-3, Hauterive, 1991).