Period IV

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98-1543), Erasmus, 1523. Kunstmuseum Basel, photo Wikipedia.

Basel, the Mirror of Europe

The city of Basel represents and confirms at micro level the identity of Switzerland. A crossroads and spring of rivers to the north and to the south of Europe, and of roads and mountain passes that connect Italy with Germany, the United Kingdom and the Low Countries.

Basel experienced the Celtic tribe of the Rauraci, the Romans, the Burgundians, the Alemans, the Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire and,  finally,  accession to the Swiss Confederation in 1501.

The industrial, trading and the humanist city hosted Erasmus (1456-1536),  who is even buried in the Basler Münster.

The city experienced Protestant fury and rage in 1529 (Basilea reformata).

Basel remained and became an agent of humanism, the printing press, tolerance, ideas and civilization afterwards.

The bishopric of Basel was the frontier between two archbishoprics: Besançon in France, to which belonged the territory of Basel-city,  and Mainz (Mayence) in Germany, and which ruled over the bishopric of Constance and the territories of minor-Basel (Klein-Basel), on the right bank of the Rhine.

Basel was also the city of the Council (1431-1449), after the Council of  Constance (1411-1418).

Famous artists — such as Holbein the Younger (1497-1543), scholars (Jacob Burckhardt 1818-1897), or politicians, e.g. the French socialist Jean Jàures (1859-1914) in 1912 —  had their finest hour in this city.